Chukotkan Autonomous Okrug
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The Chukotkan Autonomous Okrug, since 1993 directly placed under administration of the Russian Federation (i.e. excluded from the Magadan Region), consists of the north-eastern corner of Siberia, or the extreme north of the Russian Far East, including the Chukotka Peninsula. It is bordered by the East Siberian and Chukchi seas to the north and the
Bering Seato the west. It is only 80 km across the shallow Bering Straitfrom , or 75 km from St. Lawrence Island (Alaskan). The okrug is bound by the Alaska to the west and by the Koryak Autonomous Okrug and the Magadan Region to the south. Most of the landscape is mountainous and rises to elevations between 1000 and 2000 m. Flat lowland areas occur around the lower and middle parts of the Sakha Republic and around Chaunskaya Guba. The arctic Anadyr River Wrangel Islandis part of the okrug.
Most of the area is barren tundra, except for some spots of forest tundra and taiga in the east (
Kolyma, Bolsh. and Mal. Anyuy rivers) with larch, and in the south ( ) with cedar scrub vegetation. The okrug has an arctic- to subarctic-maritime climate and is almost entirely situated within the zone of continuous permafrost. The frost-free period is ca. 1-1.5 months in the northern and central areas, but up to over 3 months in the Anadyr Basin and along the eastern coast south of the Anadyr Basin Bering Strait. Winterice covers the entire coast (October-June in the north), and the open sea to the north has sea ice during most of the year. Average temperatures are -12° (south-western coast) to -36°C (central eastern interior) in January, and +4° ( , northern coast) to +12° ( Chukotka Range ) in July. The minimum temperature measured in Anadyr Basin Anadyrin January is -51°C.