Russian policies put off indigenous peoples
Winfried Dallmann, ANSIPRA Secretariat
nothing is ever quite what it seems.”
[Business Week special report,
Where are indigenous peoples now, 20 years after the beginning of Gorbachev’s perestroika policy, and at the end of the UN Decade of Indigenous Peoples?
There was a time of hope. Things started to change. But they got stuck.
Indigenous representatives sometimes blame their local or regional authorities for negative attitudes, while they look up to the Russian government and hope for miracles coming from there. But there are significant reasons to doubt. Isn’t it possible that the government – or at least strong groups within it – count exactly on the local authorities to prevent the laws from being implemented? May it be they make laws only for reasons of propaganda? Is there a political intention that all laws, which eventually might lead to a positive effect for indigenous peoples, are sooner or later made ineffective, changed or withdrawn – such as the one on Territories of Traditional Nature Use? Are draft laws only made to please public opinion? Are they playing to the gallery?
Many say the government is unable to act against powerful resource-extracting companies and their unrestrained capitalistic interests devoid of human and environmental moral. Politicians who really are working for changes are shot on the street. Maybe so. And, possibly, these new businessmen have by now channelled sufficient numbers of their own people into the governmental system or bought the officials for money.
It all seems very much like those who steer the country pretend to make promises accompanied by a lot of noise, and then quietly make up some excuses – relating to conditions beyond their power – in order not to fulfil them. Thus they stay in the fold of the public opinion, while the state does not need to do anything. There may be the hope that the “problem” of indigenous peoples will dissolve because in a few decades there will be no more indigenous individuals left, who demand their ancestral grounds and who want to pursue traditional ways of life.
I am not saying this is necessarily so, but it could easily be concluded. If it is not so, the government should do something to prevent these ideas from gaining ground. In the end, politicians are judged by their deeds, not by their words.
What would be the problem if indigenous peoples were to have the possibility to live according to their traditional lifestyle? Does the state fear they would rise up?
It is ridiculous. Oppressed people may rise up, not the ones that are given the freedom and lands to develop. The problem is rather that there is an overall sickness among powerful people that makes them want to stay in full control and power of every single thing in their sphere of influence.
Or is it the fear that indigenous people’s rights endanger economic development like oil and gas production, timber felling, large-scale fishing, etc.? It seems as if economic development in
But haven’t other countries achieved ways of coexistence of economic development – including extraction of resources – and traditional land use, or at least made real attempts to achieve it? Other Arctic countries have through the recent decades developed more or less decent policies towards their indigenous populations. At least, there have been processes to settle the problems and to make indigenous representatives real partners in negotiations. They do not paternise them anymore, and if they try, there is a big fuss which is clearly heard. But
Another thing may be mentioned: the fear of terrorism. Measures against terrorism can easily be used against all sorts of ethnic movements and affect peaceful movements along with violent ones. Totalitarian governments promote the idea that ethnic demands for justice are the first step towards liberation battles and terrorism. They use people’s fear of terrorism to destroy everything that moves. Liberation battles, on the other hand, are directed against a definite, oppressing enemy.
Remarkably, indigenous peoples of
But there are voices saying that Russian authorities regard any counteraction of indigenous inhabitants in defense of their rights as a display of nationalism. It is not difficult to imagine that indigenous movements, although conducted in a civilised manner, in the near future may get into conflict with anti-terror laws. And the hidden agenda behind would not be fear of terrorism or ethnic uprisings. It would be a way to save money for the development of the indigenous peoples.
As the new Chair of the Arctic Council – a political formation, which considers the protection of Arctic indigenous peoples as an important issue –
What does President Putin’s recent move towards full control of the regions by hand-selected governors mean in this context? We do not know. We should carefully watch and listen to the signs.